College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award

Fall 11-26-2013

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Leonard A. Jason, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Nathan Todd, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

W. LaVome Robinson, Ph.D.


Substance abuse and dependence is a social problem in the U .S. that continues to be difficult to adequately address (Dutra et al.. 2008; Harwood. 2000; 0 DCP, 2004; SAMHSA,2010). Services such as inpatient treatment, outpatient treatment, mutual-help addiction support groups and recovery housing have attempted to redress the issue with limited effect (Jason eta l2001 ). Obviously, additional research is needed for these serv ices. In particular, additional research is needed for mechanisms by which mutual-help and recovery housing influence behavior. For example, research suggests that members who engage in helping behaviors have more favorable outcomes (Crape. Latkin, Laris. & Knowlton. 2002; Magura eta!.. 2003; Pagano, Friend, Tonigan, Stout, 2004; Zenmore et al., 2004), and groups whose members engage in such behavior appear to be more sustainable over time (King, Stewart. King, & Law, 2000; Wituk, Shepherd, Warren, & Meissen, 2002). Although the mechanisms of these helping behaviors in mutual-help systems are not well understood, a transdisciplinary perspective can be employed to examine helping behaviors from an industrial/organizational (l/0) framework. The 110 literature suggests that citizenship behavior (e.g. helping the setting and fellow members prosper) isrelated to satisfaction with and commitment to settings (LePine, Erezand & Johnson, 2002; Organ & Ryan, 1995; Schappe, 1998; Whitman, Rooy, & Viswesvaran, 201 0; Zeinabadi, 201 0), as well as the congruence between persons and settings in which they interact (Hoffman & Woehr, 2006; Varquer et al., 2003). This literature further suggests that satisfaction and commitment may mediate the relationship between congruence and citizenship (Varquer, Beehr,& Wagner, 2003).

Based on the aforementioned literature, this dissertation examined a meditational path model using a multilevel structural equation model to account for potential dependence that can result from complex sampling methods. The dissertation also examined individual paths in the model. The initial model with onl y hypothesized relationships did not fit the data well. Although an alternative model with all questioned relationships included fit the data excellentl y and explained a large amount of variance in satisfaction, commitment, and citizenship behavior, onl y little to moderate variance was explained by unique paths. Additionally, there was a moderate to strong correlations between the components ofP-E fit. This suggested the components may form a latent factor of general P-E fit that could be related to citizenship behavior through satisfaction and commitment. The supplemental measurement and structural model supported this supposition. This supplemental model suggested a moderate direct relationship of P-E fit to satisfaction, commitment, and citizenship as well a strong relationship between satisfaction and commitment. These findings are consistent with recent theory regarding P-E fit (Yu, 2009) and were discussed in relation to both Affecti ve Events Theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1957).