Date of Award

Spring 6-10-2023

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctorate of Philosophy (PhD) in Education


College of Education, Doctoral Program

First Advisor

Thomas Noel

Second Advisor

Leodis Scott

Third Advisor

Megan Alderden


Under Article III of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security. It is the duty of law enforcement to protect and respect these rights. The Royal Thai Police (RTP) patrol officers carry firearms as lethal weapons on their duty belts, similar to police officers in the United States (US). However, firearms are the only force option available to the RTP in stark contrast to the options police officers in the US have when they encounter resistance from suspects. For the RTP, conducted energy devices (CED) and oleoresin capsicum (OC) sprays are not readily available to use, if necessary, as less-lethal force options before resorting to firearms. This study utilized classic experimental research to determine if a specific intervention had an effect on the RTP participants' behaviors and attitudes in the use of less-lethal force options during virtual use of force simulation scenarios. The 8-hour intervention course provided the RTP with knowledge and skills to improve officers' decision-making and understanding of less-lethal force options. In pre- and post-intervention virtual use of force simulation scenarios, CEDs and OC spray were available on the officers' duty belts when they encountered threats. This quantitative research study utilized an experimental design, survey, and evaluation process. The research questions examined changes in officers' behaviors and attitudes in the use of less-lethal force options between pre- and post-intervention simulations. The results indicated a statistically significant difference in the officers’ behaviors and attitudes in the use of less-lethal force options, emphasizing the principles of the sanctity of human life.