Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


College of Education, Doctoral Program

First Advisor

Radner, Barbara

Second Advisor

Mindes, Gayle

Third Advisor

Suleiman, Layla


The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of active reflection on the self-perception of empowerment in the workplace. A model integrating reflection and psychological empowerment was developed. The developed model is based on Spreitzer's Model of Psychological Empowerment. The sample consisted of non-management knowledge workers at a software company in the Midwest that placed a high value on the continuous learning of its employees. A pretest, posttest control group design was used. The experimental group kept guided journals of their learning activities for three months. Immediately prior to and following the journaling period, both groups completed Spreitzer's Scale of Psychological Empowerment.