Start Date

18-6-2019 9:00 AM

End Date

18-6-2019 10:30 AM

Description

Coping Mechanisms Commonly Used in Asian-American

Patients Diagnosed with Breast Cancer:

An Integrative Review of the Literature

Kathy Leung

Background: Having breast cancer can be a difficult experience to navigate through. Ethnic minorities can encounter many challenges physically and psychologically.

Objective: To explore the different coping mechanisms of Asian Americans with breast cancer or are breast cancer survivors.

Method: An integrative literature review design was conducted using the framework constructed by Whittemore and Knafl (2005), was conducted. A computerized search was used using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Health Literature (CINAHL), Nursing & Allied Health Database, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Sociology Collection. Articles that were reviewed were written between 2009 and 2017. Inclusion criteria included full-text articles, peer reviewed articles, and articles Seven research studies were analyzed to identify common coping mechanisms among the Asian American population.

Results: Seven research studies were explored by using the ILR design to assess different coping mechanisms commonly used among Asian-Americans that have been diagnosed with breast cancer or are breast cancer survivors. After analyzing the seven articles, five major themes were found to be commonly trended: 1) Family Coping, 2) Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, 3) Information Seeking, 4) Cultural Competence, 5) Body Image. Family coping: family relationship such as a spouse or parent being physically and informed of the whole healing process was important to subjects. Religious and Spiritual Beliefs; sound of mind brought about positive feelings of a spiritual force was watching over them individually which added to a feeling of content. Information Seeking meant seeking information of cancer as a specific disease empowers the individual to start to take next steps healing powers but no as an informed survivor. Cultural Competence is composed of 2 sides; the physician’s and the Asian patient’s perspectives. The first side is the health care provider who may not understand why the Asian patient may be silent during visits compounded with the challenge of a language barrier. Impression from the physician is that silence means misunderstanding from the patient. The second part deals with the patient’s confusion with seeing more than one health care provider with the office visit processes and referrals. Learning how to navigate the mainstream American health care system and follow-through with referrals for specialist can be overwhelming. Body Image patient’s perception that the lack of a breast does not make them less of a woman.

Conclusion: Major limitations: lack of a theoretical/conceptual framework and the lack of a larger population that encompassed a wider age range of breast cancer survivors. Focus in all studies was the older Asian American female who brought to the forefront possible assumptions that breast cancer survivors are older versus younger. A return to the literature found in a study of younger Asian American women (about 10 years younger) The third theme in reaching out to breast cancer survivors was partially similar with one of five themes of ILR of information seeking. Participants were found to be looking for support outside of the family. In order to receive more data and understanding and to better answer the research question, studies should include a bigger age range. The findings suggest that there are common trending themes when it comes to coping mechanisms for Asian American women with breast cancer. These themes may be beneficial for future research and helpful for current use. Coping mechanisms may differ from the two different age populations and the findings can provide a better understanding of what different coping mechanisms are used for each population and can be compared and contrasted. Future research should also include a more organized theoretical/conceptual framework to guide research especially in relation to coping mechanisms of breast cancer Asian women survivors. Recommendation: Study Conceptual Model from Understanding the Stress Process Model of Chinese- and Korean- American Breast Cancer Survivors by Paek & Lim, 2016.

Keywords: “breast cancer”, “breast neoplasms”, “Asian Americans”, “Chinese Americans”, “Korean Americans”, “coping”, “adapting”, “adaptation”, “adjustment”, “acculturation”, “attitudes to health”, “beliefs to health”, and “health beliefs”.

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Jun 18th, 9:00 AM Jun 18th, 10:30 AM

Coping Mechanisms Commonly Used in Asian-American Patients Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: An Integrative Review of the Literature

Coping Mechanisms Commonly Used in Asian-American

Patients Diagnosed with Breast Cancer:

An Integrative Review of the Literature

Kathy Leung

Background: Having breast cancer can be a difficult experience to navigate through. Ethnic minorities can encounter many challenges physically and psychologically.

Objective: To explore the different coping mechanisms of Asian Americans with breast cancer or are breast cancer survivors.

Method: An integrative literature review design was conducted using the framework constructed by Whittemore and Knafl (2005), was conducted. A computerized search was used using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Health Literature (CINAHL), Nursing & Allied Health Database, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Sociology Collection. Articles that were reviewed were written between 2009 and 2017. Inclusion criteria included full-text articles, peer reviewed articles, and articles Seven research studies were analyzed to identify common coping mechanisms among the Asian American population.

Results: Seven research studies were explored by using the ILR design to assess different coping mechanisms commonly used among Asian-Americans that have been diagnosed with breast cancer or are breast cancer survivors. After analyzing the seven articles, five major themes were found to be commonly trended: 1) Family Coping, 2) Religious and Spiritual Beliefs, 3) Information Seeking, 4) Cultural Competence, 5) Body Image. Family coping: family relationship such as a spouse or parent being physically and informed of the whole healing process was important to subjects. Religious and Spiritual Beliefs; sound of mind brought about positive feelings of a spiritual force was watching over them individually which added to a feeling of content. Information Seeking meant seeking information of cancer as a specific disease empowers the individual to start to take next steps healing powers but no as an informed survivor. Cultural Competence is composed of 2 sides; the physician’s and the Asian patient’s perspectives. The first side is the health care provider who may not understand why the Asian patient may be silent during visits compounded with the challenge of a language barrier. Impression from the physician is that silence means misunderstanding from the patient. The second part deals with the patient’s confusion with seeing more than one health care provider with the office visit processes and referrals. Learning how to navigate the mainstream American health care system and follow-through with referrals for specialist can be overwhelming. Body Image patient’s perception that the lack of a breast does not make them less of a woman.

Conclusion: Major limitations: lack of a theoretical/conceptual framework and the lack of a larger population that encompassed a wider age range of breast cancer survivors. Focus in all studies was the older Asian American female who brought to the forefront possible assumptions that breast cancer survivors are older versus younger. A return to the literature found in a study of younger Asian American women (about 10 years younger) The third theme in reaching out to breast cancer survivors was partially similar with one of five themes of ILR of information seeking. Participants were found to be looking for support outside of the family. In order to receive more data and understanding and to better answer the research question, studies should include a bigger age range. The findings suggest that there are common trending themes when it comes to coping mechanisms for Asian American women with breast cancer. These themes may be beneficial for future research and helpful for current use. Coping mechanisms may differ from the two different age populations and the findings can provide a better understanding of what different coping mechanisms are used for each population and can be compared and contrasted. Future research should also include a more organized theoretical/conceptual framework to guide research especially in relation to coping mechanisms of breast cancer Asian women survivors. Recommendation: Study Conceptual Model from Understanding the Stress Process Model of Chinese- and Korean- American Breast Cancer Survivors by Paek & Lim, 2016.

Keywords: “breast cancer”, “breast neoplasms”, “Asian Americans”, “Chinese Americans”, “Korean Americans”, “coping”, “adapting”, “adaptation”, “adjustment”, “acculturation”, “attitudes to health”, “beliefs to health”, and “health beliefs”.