Start Date

18-6-2019 9:00 AM

End Date

18-6-2019 10:30 AM

Description

Anaerobic Exercise’s Effects on Depression and Depressive Symptoms:

An Integrated Literature Review

Peter Ryckbosch

Research Sponsor Roxanne Spurlark DNP, MSN, FNP, RN

Introduction: This data depicts a startling picture; depression affects a large portion of the population at some point in their life. Pharmacology and psychotherapy are the treatments of choice for the depressed. Half of the depressed clients do not respond well enough to conventional treatments to reach remission from their symptoms (Danielsson et al., 2014; Halter, 2014). Studies have found that exercise for as little as 10 days can help alleviate symptoms. Aerobic exercise has been studied heavily but anaerobic exercise about its efficacy in regard to depression treatment is questionable. Aerobic refers to exercise done with the use of oxygen, while anaerobic is exercise done without the use of oxygen.

Objective: To answer the research question: How does anaerobic exercise affect depression and depressive symptoms?

Method: The research question was answered by using an integrative literature review design

(PRISMA, 2015). Studies were screened then sorted by landmark studies and age range of study participants. The studies were also graded on a scale of 1-2 (low or high) in their overall quality in six different qualities. After all the screening, 26 articles fit the inclusion criteria.

Results: A total of 26 research articles were reviewed and analyzed. Studies were delineated into 4 groups that evaluated the effectiveness of anaerobic exercise modalities. The first group consisted of two adult landmark studies: 1) sprinting significantly lowered BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory) score in clients with major depressive disorder (p<0.001). This was the only study that directly answered the research question. 2) Incarcerated male population improved their mental well-being, SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-revised) scores, with weight-based training (squats, bench-press, biceps curls, triceps bench dips, hip lifts, prone planks, abdominal crunches) ( p<0.05). This was found to be the first study of incarcerated males. Second group: adolescent population decreased DIKJ depressive scores (Depressions Iventar für Kinder und Jugendliche; English Depression Inventory for Children and Adolescents) with weight-based training (p = 0.042). Third group: adults, eight out of 15 had a decrease in their depressive scores. Five studies looked at populations without comorbidities, one was excluded due to a population too specific to generalize (being professional athletes), of those four, three achieved significance by decreasing their depressive scores using the BDI or POMS (Profile of Mood States) (p-values between 0.003-0.005). Two of these studies were weight-based and one was sprint based. Fourth group: geriatrics, eight studies were exclusively weight based, two of the eight had an improvement in depressive symptoms (p-values of 0.018 and <0.001). Three major limitations: 1) small sample sizes < l00 without indication of ethnicities 2) lack of theoretical/conceptual framework. 3) scores of depression scales were the basis of significance measurements with a lack of depressive symptom descriptors.

Conclusion: Clinically diagnosed depression of incarcerated males, adolescents, healthy adults, and clients with end-stage renal disease were found to have decreased depression scores with anaerobic exercise. Sprint-based can be efficacious but weight-based training was shown to be more effective at decreasing depressive symptoms. There is insufficient data to support a generalized conclusion that anaerobic exercise helps decrease depression in clients with any serious comorbidity. The geriatric population showed that depression is not well treated by anaerobic exercise. Future research recommendation: examining groups of > 100 healthy adult’s incarcerated and free with major depressive disorder each with indications of ethnicity with consistent depression scales guided by a conceptual/theoretical framework (Need Theory by Henderson, 1999). This conceptual/theoretical framework was utilized and found constructive to guide this ILR.

Key Words: anaerobic, depression, depressive symptoms, exercise

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Jun 18th, 9:00 AM Jun 18th, 10:30 AM

Anaerobic Exercise’s Effects on Depression and Depressive Symptoms: An Integrated Literature Review

Anaerobic Exercise’s Effects on Depression and Depressive Symptoms:

An Integrated Literature Review

Peter Ryckbosch

Research Sponsor Roxanne Spurlark DNP, MSN, FNP, RN

Introduction: This data depicts a startling picture; depression affects a large portion of the population at some point in their life. Pharmacology and psychotherapy are the treatments of choice for the depressed. Half of the depressed clients do not respond well enough to conventional treatments to reach remission from their symptoms (Danielsson et al., 2014; Halter, 2014). Studies have found that exercise for as little as 10 days can help alleviate symptoms. Aerobic exercise has been studied heavily but anaerobic exercise about its efficacy in regard to depression treatment is questionable. Aerobic refers to exercise done with the use of oxygen, while anaerobic is exercise done without the use of oxygen.

Objective: To answer the research question: How does anaerobic exercise affect depression and depressive symptoms?

Method: The research question was answered by using an integrative literature review design

(PRISMA, 2015). Studies were screened then sorted by landmark studies and age range of study participants. The studies were also graded on a scale of 1-2 (low or high) in their overall quality in six different qualities. After all the screening, 26 articles fit the inclusion criteria.

Results: A total of 26 research articles were reviewed and analyzed. Studies were delineated into 4 groups that evaluated the effectiveness of anaerobic exercise modalities. The first group consisted of two adult landmark studies: 1) sprinting significantly lowered BDI-II (Beck Depression Inventory) score in clients with major depressive disorder (p<0.001). This was the only study that directly answered the research question. 2) Incarcerated male population improved their mental well-being, SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-revised) scores, with weight-based training (squats, bench-press, biceps curls, triceps bench dips, hip lifts, prone planks, abdominal crunches) ( p<0.05). This was found to be the first study of incarcerated males. Second group: adolescent population decreased DIKJ depressive scores (Depressions Iventar für Kinder und Jugendliche; English Depression Inventory for Children and Adolescents) with weight-based training (p = 0.042). Third group: adults, eight out of 15 had a decrease in their depressive scores. Five studies looked at populations without comorbidities, one was excluded due to a population too specific to generalize (being professional athletes), of those four, three achieved significance by decreasing their depressive scores using the BDI or POMS (Profile of Mood States) (p-values between 0.003-0.005). Two of these studies were weight-based and one was sprint based. Fourth group: geriatrics, eight studies were exclusively weight based, two of the eight had an improvement in depressive symptoms (p-values of 0.018 and <0.001). Three major limitations: 1) small sample sizes < l00 without indication of ethnicities 2) lack of theoretical/conceptual framework. 3) scores of depression scales were the basis of significance measurements with a lack of depressive symptom descriptors.

Conclusion: Clinically diagnosed depression of incarcerated males, adolescents, healthy adults, and clients with end-stage renal disease were found to have decreased depression scores with anaerobic exercise. Sprint-based can be efficacious but weight-based training was shown to be more effective at decreasing depressive symptoms. There is insufficient data to support a generalized conclusion that anaerobic exercise helps decrease depression in clients with any serious comorbidity. The geriatric population showed that depression is not well treated by anaerobic exercise. Future research recommendation: examining groups of > 100 healthy adult’s incarcerated and free with major depressive disorder each with indications of ethnicity with consistent depression scales guided by a conceptual/theoretical framework (Need Theory by Henderson, 1999). This conceptual/theoretical framework was utilized and found constructive to guide this ILR.

Key Words: anaerobic, depression, depressive symptoms, exercise