College of Liberal Arts & Social Sciences Theses and Dissertations

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Montmorillonite clay, Environmental chemistry, Aldehydes, Organic compounds, Synthesis


Montmorillonite clays are employed as effective and environmentally benign heterogeneous catalysts for several reactions of aldehydes: (1) the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of aromatic aldehydes with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene to give dihydropyran products; (2) the cyclotrimerization of aliphatic aldehydes; (3) the oxidation of aliphatic aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic acids; (4) the addition of allyltrimethylsilane to electron deficient benzaldehydes to give homoallylic silyl ethers. The hetero-Diels-Alder and allyl silation reactions are effected in the presence of heat- activated Montmorillonite K10 clay, at room temperature or below, in the presence of minimal solvent. A temperature dependent equilibrium is observed for the cyclotrimerization of aliphatic aldehydes in the presence of untreated Montmorillonite K10, while aerobic oxidation to the carboxylic acids is observed in the presence of Montmorillonite KSF.