College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award

Winter 3-20-2020

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Gabriela Gonzalez Aviles, PhD

Second Advisor

Bernhard Beck-Winchatz, PhD

Third Advisor

Anuj Sarma, PhD


The solid solution (CuxZn(1-x))0.456In1.084Ge0.46O3 (CuZIGO) has a complex structure where zinc and copper partially occupy a site shared by indium and germanium. ZIGO, the x = 0 endpoint, is a potential transparent conducting oxide (TCO) with similar conductivity and transparency to cubic In2O3, which, when doped with Sn4+, is the most prevalent TCO. ZIGO structure possesses a tetragonal structure and has the ability to produce multiple new phases with an array of properties that are beneficial to identify and understand. Analyzing this structure is best done through chemical substitution to identify the newly produced phases. Copper is a suitable choice because of its ability to be easily incorporated into the ZIGO structure and create a complete solid solution between the ZIGO phase and the CIGO (Cu0.456In1.084Ge0.46O3) phase. The incorporation of copper in the ZIGO structure was studied using both neutron and x-ray diffraction. Using Rietveld analysis, copper was localized at the 16f site of tetragonal (CuxZn(1-x))0.456In1.084Ge0.46O3. Analysis using both GSAS-II and FullProf displayed a lack of copper in any of the three other cation sites (8e, 4a or 4b, which are occupied by indium, indium, and germanium, respectively in the ZIGO compound). The lattice parameters of the solid solution (CuxZn(1-x))0.456In1.084Ge0.46O3, where x= 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, were investigated with high-resolution synchrotron diffraction data. These lattice parameters decreased as copper increased between x=0.25 and x=0.75, but they increased for x=1.00. The lattice parameter changes indicate that a full solid solution is achieved in this quaternary structure. Implications and challenges on the structural characterization of complex new materials are briefly discussed.

SLP Collection


Included in

Physics Commons