College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award

Winter 3-18-2017

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Kathryn Grant, PhD


Children who endorse cross-gendered behaviors, or behaviors that deviate from the sociocultural expectancies of a member of a specific gender (e.g., opposite-sex toy preferences), are described as being gender nonconforming. Gender nonconforming children are often subjected to victimization and childhood maltreatment, and because gender roles are much more rigid in boys than in girls, boys may be at a heightened risk for victimization. Past research suggests that gender nonconforming children are at risk for maladaptive development, such that gender nonconforming children are placed at a heightened risk for poor mental health outcomes due to the victimization and adversity they experience. The current review aims to build upon previous work and examine the effects of cross-gendered behaviors during childhood and poor mental health in adulthood and to explore the roles of victimization, biological sex, and sexual orientation on the association. Keywords: childhood gender nonconformity, victimization, psychopathology

SLP Collection


Included in

Psychology Commons