Beyond the 1954 Hague Convention

Document Type


Publication Date

January 2014


The United States ratified the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict in 2009. This chapter explores the background to ratification, key provisions of the Convention and its two protocols, impact of ratification on the US military, adequacy of US military compliance with the Convention, and subsequent developments, particularly the growth of the Blue Shield movement, that have aimed at providing greater protection to cultural property. These improvements are also evaluated as the proliferation of conflicts involving non-state actors and not of an international character poses ever greater threats to cultural heritage.