In this Article, Professor Livingston examines the history and philosophy of animal cruelty laws and also surveys the scope and content of contemporary American anti-cruelty statutes. She explores, moreover, a substantial body of social science data that suggest a correlation between the commission of animal abuse and a propensity for other violent behavior. From her survey of current law, Professor Livingston concludes that lawmakers should amend animal cruelty statutes to provide for mandatory psychological treatment for youthful offenders and harsher penalties for older and habitual offenders. She observes that animal abuse as a crime not only affects the animals targeted but has wider implications for society as a whole.
Margit Livingston, Desecrating the Ark: Animal Abuse and the Law's Role in Prevention, 87 Iowa L. Rev. 1, 74 (2001)