College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

Date of Award

Winter 3-25-2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Leonard Jason, PhD

Second Advisor

Susan Tran, PhD


Unfortunately, the United States has experienced approximately 620,000 deaths as a direct result of COVID-19, with elderly, Hispanic, and Black Americans experiencing the greatest risk (CDC, 2021). Although most individuals recover from mild to moderate COVID-19 infections within a few weeks, some may experience lingering symptoms for many months (Mayo Clinic, 2020). These individuals are commonly known as COVID-19 long-haulers. In order to properly assist in the well-being of COVID-19 long-haulers, more needs to be understood in terms of how gender, race, stress, and social support impact symptomatology within this population. The present study seeks to address this gap in the literature by examining the frequency and severity of symptoms experienced by COVID-19 long-haulers throughout their illness. Independent t-tests were used to assess the differences in symptoms between females and males, and also White and BIPOC participants. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the prediction of COVID-19 symptom frequency and severity by stress, social support, and gender. Results demonstrated that female participants report experiencing greater symptom frequency and severity in several COVID-19 symptom domains, compared to male participants. In addition, results indicate that stress predicts COVID-19 severity and frequency in several symptom domains. The implications of this study’s findings include helping COVID-19 long-haulers in managing their stress, which may be especially important for female long-haulers.

SLP Collection